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Saturday, 7 August 2021

Ravindra Nath Tagore

 Biography of Ravindra Nath Tagore- 

Hello friends, all of you are welcome in  my blog Educational Age. Notes, important questions,those are related to all competitive examinations, important questions, in previous examinations, etc are provided on our website, which motivates you to perform better in competitive examinations.  So today we will talk  about Rabindranath Tagore.

 Ravindra Nath Tagore was a world famous poet, litterateur and philosopher.  He is the only Indian litterateur to have received the Nobel Prize.  He was also the first Asian to receive the Nobel Prize and the first non-European to receive the Nobel in Literature.  He is the only poet in the world whose compositions are the national anthems of two countries - the national anthem of India 'Jana Gana Mana' and the national anthem of Bangladesh 'Amar Sonar Bangla'.
  Rabindranath Tagore played an influential role in bringing the good of Indian civilization to the west and its goodness here.  His talent can be gauged from the fact that he wrote his first poem when he was only 8 years old.  At the age of 16, his poems were also published under the name 'Bhanusimha'.  He was a fierce nationalist and condemned the British Raj and demanded the independence of the country.
  Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7 May 1861 in Jorasanko Thakurbari, Kolkata.  His father was Devendranath Tagore and mother was Sharda Devi.  He was the youngest of the thirteen surviving children of his parents.  His eldest brother Dwijendranath was a philosopher and poet.  His second brother, Satyendranath Tagore, was the first Indian to join the Indian Civil Service.  Another of his brothers, Jyotindranath, was a musician and playwright.  His sister Swarnakumari Devi was a poetess and novelist.  He did not like the traditional education system, so he did not like to sit in the class and study.
  After his Upanayana ceremony, Rabindranath went on a tour of India with his father for several months.  He also visited the family's fiefdoms, Shantiniketan and Amritsar, before reaching Dalhousie, a tourist destination in the Himalayas.  In Dalhousie, he studied history, astronomy, modern science, Sanskrit, biography and discussed Kalidasa's poems.
             After this Rabindranath returned to Jorasanko and by the year 1877 had composed some of his important works.
  His father Debendranath wanted to make him a barrister, so he sent Rabindranath to England in the year 1878.  He enrolled at the University College London to study law, but after some time he dropped out and self-studied the works of Shakespeare and some other litterateurs.  He returned to Bengal in 1880 without a law degree.  He was married to Mrinalini Devi in ​​the year 1883.
 After his return from England and his marriage, until 1901, Rabindranath spent most of his time in his family's fiefdom in Sealdah (now in Bangladesh).  In the year 1898, his children and wife also started living with him here.
 In the year 1901, Rabindranath moved to Shantiniketan.  He wanted to establish an ashram here.  Here he built a school, library and place of worship.  He planted many trees here and also made a beautiful garden.  It was here that his wife and two children also died.  His father also passed away in 1905.  By this time, he was also earning a monthly income from his inherited wealth.  Some income also started coming from the royalties of his literature.
 Rabindranath Tagore received the Nobel Prize for Literature on 14 November 1913.  The Swedish Academy, the Nobel Prize awarding body, had decided to award him on the basis of translation of some of his works and 'Gitanjali'.  The British government granted him a knighthood in the year 1915, which Rabindranath left after the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
 In 1921, he, along with agricultural economist Leonard Amherst, founded the Institute of Rural Reconstruction near his ashram.  Later its name was changed to Sriniketan.
 He spent the last 4 years of his life in pain and illness.  At the end of the year 1937, he became unconscious and remained in this state for a long time.  About three years later, the same thing happened again.  During this, whenever he was fine, he would write poems.  The poems written during this period are one of his best poems.  After a long illness, on 7 August 1941, he said goodbye to this world.
             From 1878 to 1932, he traveled to 30 countries.  The main purpose of his travels was to take his literary works to the people who did not understand the Bengali language.

Most people know him only as a poet but in reality it was not so.  Along with poems, he also wrote novels, articles, short stories, travelogues, dramas and thousands of songs. Along with a great poet and litterateur, Guru Rabindranath Tagore was also an outstanding musician and painter.  He wrote about 2230 songs – these songs are called Rabindra Sangeet.  It is an integral part of Bengali  politicculture.His political views were very complex.  He criticized European colonialism and supported Indian nationalism.  Along with this, he criticized the Swadeshi movement and said that we should focus on the intellectual development of the common people – in this way we can pave the way for independence.  He wrote many songs in support of the Indian independence movement.

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